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Types of Social Institutions

Types of Social Institutions
Juli 8, 2024 laskarui
In News
Types of Social Institutions

Types of Social Institutions

Social institutions are an important part of social life. Social institutions have special duties and roles that help regulate ways of living together and teach values ​​and maintain harmony in society. The following is the definition, characteristics and types of social institutions that you need to know.

Understanding social institutions

Social institutions are a system of norms in social groups that are used to achieve a common goal that is considered important by the people in it. Social institutions regulate a series of procedures to meet human needs with the aim of achieving order in life.

Some social institutions are regulatory in nature, so every member who joins a social institution will be bound by regulations that must be obeyed. These rules are called norms. Norms consist of a set of written or unwritten rules.

Characteristics of social institutions

The characteristics of social institutions can be seen based on the goals the institution wants to achieve, the nature of sanctions and the nature of eternity. The following are the characteristics of social institutions:

Structured and eternal

Social institutions have long-lasting permanence. This happens thanks to the structured nature and norms in social institutions which must be obeyed and maintained by every member in them.

Having a goal

One of the reasons a social institution can be created is because there is a goal or vision and mission that its members want to achieve. For example, Kindergarten (TK) educational institutions were created to provide early education to children before entering elementary school (SD).

Norms and sanctions

Social institutions have norms that are adopted through a long process to gain recognition from the local community and must be obeyed by their members. Apart from norms, social institutions also have sanctions or punishments.

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Complementary tools and equipment

Usually social institutions have complementary tools and equipment to support their activities in achieving goals. For example, social institutions such as the symbol of money as a medium of exchange in economic institutions.

Types of Social Institutions

Types of social institutions are divided into 5 types based on the function of each social institution. The following is an explanation of the types of social institutions:

1. Family Institute

If we talk about types of social institutions, the family institution is the smallest form of social institution that an individual first has when he is born into the world. The family institution can be formed based on blood ties between individuals and through marriage.

Even though it is the smallest social institution, the family institution is one of the primary social institutions in society. This cannot be separated from the very large function of the family institution in society. The following are some of the functions that family institutions have:

  • Reproductive function or continuing offspring
  • Economic function
  • The function of affection or giving affection
  • Protection function or providing protection
  • The socialization function is a place for family members to communicate with each other
  • The most primary social control function
  • Function in providing status

For example, family institutions consist of the Religious Courts, KUA, Indonesian Child Protection Commission (KPAI) and Child Protection Institutions.

2. Educational institutions

The next social institution is an educational institution. The function of educational institutions is very important to educate the community to shape the quality of the next generation.

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Types of social institutions in the form of educational institutions in the community are divided into three types, namely informal educational institutions, non-formal educational institutions, and formal institutions.

There are many types of educational institutions that are assigned to regulate and provide educational facilities for students or the community in general. The following are examples of educational institutions in Indonesia:

  • Kindergarten (TK)
  • Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI) or Elementary School (SD) 
  • Play Group (KB)
  • Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs) or Junior High School (SMP) 
  • Senior High School (SMA) or Madrasah Aliyah (MA)
  • Vocational High School (SMK)
  • Specialized training institutions

3. Economic Institute

Economic institutions are institutions formed in order to regulate economic activities in society, including production, consumption and distribution activities. Economic institutions regulate trading activities, buying and selling transactions including employment.

Economic institutions have several functions in regulating the course of economic activities in the country. The following are the functions of the main economic institutions:

  • Economic institutions are tasked with making regulations regarding employment
  • Economic institutions are tasked with creating guidelines for the exchange of goods
  • Economic institutions are tasked with creating guidelines regarding determining the selling price of products on the market
  • Economic institutions are tasked with establishing guidelines for obtaining raw materials

Some economic institutions are only found in big cities and others can be found in remote areas. The following are examples of economic institutions:

  • Market
  • State Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs
  • Ministry of Agriculture
  • State-Owned Enterprises (BUMN)
  • Regional Owned Enterprises (BUMD)
  • Ministry of Trade
  • Ministry of Fisheries

4. Religious Institutions

The role of religious institutions is to regulate human life in fulfilling their obligations to God Almighty, such as the worship and religious practices believed in by their adherents. It can be interpreted that religious institutions are belief systems and the implementation of religious practices that exist in society.

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The function of religious institutions in society is very large, not only providing guidance regarding the procedures for worship. The following functions are carried out by religious institutions:

  • With the existence of religious institutions, religious people can carry out their worship activities in peace without any fear of interference from other parties
  • Guidelines regarding life so that humans can know right and wrong values
  • As a guide in strengthening self-confidence that every good thing you do will receive a good reward (reward) from God Almighty
  • As a way of giving identity to people that they are part of a religion
  • As a means of expressing beauty (aesthetic) values

Examples of religious institutions that are already popular in Indonesia:

  • Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI)
  • Representative of Indonesian Buddhists
  • Indonesian Confucian High Council
  • Fellowship of Indonesian Churches
  • Parisada Hindu Dharma Indonesia

5. Political Institutions

Political institutions are one type of social institution whose task is to regulate all activities of social life in an area so that the interests of all people can be accommodated fairly.

The purpose of establishing political institutions is to achieve good order and regularity in social life. The following are some of the main functions of political institutions:

  • Political institutions are tasked with controlling conflicts that occur in society
  • Political institutions function to formulate applicable norms regarding the regulation of power in the law
  • Provide public services to all members of society

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