Maritime Islamic Kingdoms in Indonesia, and What Do You Want to Know About Them?
One of the traces of the spread of Islam is marked by the emergence of the Islamic kingdom in Indonesia. According to history, Islam first entered the archipelago at the end of the 6th century AD, then developed through the emergence of the Islamic kingdom.
Characteristics of a Maritime Islamic Empire
- Has a strategic port and is busy with traders from various regions and countries.
- Use your own currency or foreign currency that applies in the world of international trade, such as dinars, dirhams, kueh, and reals.
- Has diplomatic relations and cooperation with other Islamic kingdoms, both in Southeast Asia and the Middle East.
- Has Islamic study and education centers that attract scholars and intellectuals to study and teach there.
- Has a strong cultural influence on the surrounding community, such as in terms of language, art, architecture, law and customs
Maritime Islamic Empire in Indonesia
1. Pasai Ocean Kingdom
The first maritime Islamic kingdom that we will discuss is the Samudera Pasai Kingdom. Because, the entry of Islam into Indonesia was marked by the founding of this kingdom. Pasai Ocean is on the north coast of the island of Sumatra, specifically in the city of Lhokseumawe and North Aceh Regency.
The first king of Samudera Pasai was Sultan Malik as-Saleh. Before embracing Islam, Sultan Malik as-Saleh had the name Meurah Silu. The Samudera Pasai Kingdom reached its peak of glory during the leadership of Sultan Mahmud Malik Az-Zahir.
2. Aceh Kingdom
The Kingdom of Aceh is one of the large maritime Islamic kingdoms in the archipelago. Its position at the western tip of Sumatra Island makes it a strategic place for international maritime trade flows.
In the past, Aceh was a transit port, then developed into a port city, until finally it became a kingdom that controlled the Malacca Strait and the Malay Peninsula. So, this kingdom really started from the maritime sector.
3. Banten Kingdom
The next maritime Islamic kingdom was the Banten Kingdom. Its location is in the western region of Java Island to Lampung, and lasted from 1526 to 1813. There was Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin as the first king of the Banten Kingdom and Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa as king. During his leadership, the Banten Kingdom reached the peak of glory.
The peak of this glory can be seen from the expansion of the Banten Kingdom’s trade area to the southern islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan. In fact, at that time, the Kingdom of Banten was the largest Islamic kingdom in the archipelago and Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa became a figure who aggressively fought against the domination and influence of the VOC.
4. Islamic Mataram Kingdom
The Islamic Mataram Kingdom was founded from 1586 to 1755. The founder of this kingdom was Sutawijaya or Panembahan Senopati. Interestingly, when this kingdom was founded, its location moved from place to place. Starting from Karta, Kotagede, Plered, to Kartasura. But, of course the area is still around Central Java.
The Islamic Mataram Kingdom began to weaken when Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo failed to seize Batavia from the VOC. From there, the people began to worry and then a rebellion occurred which was won by the VOC. The final decision was to divide the Mataram region and end the Islamic Mataram Kingdom in Java.
5. Demak Kingdom
The Kingdom of Demak is on the north coast of Java, specifically in Demak Regency, Central Java. The Demak Kingdom was founded in 1478 or the end of the 15th century BC. The founder of the Demak Kingdom, Raden Patah, was also its first king.
The Demak Kingdom reached its peak of glory during the reign of Sultan Trenggono, namely around 1521-1546. At that time, the Demak Kingdom succeeded in expanding its power to Sunda Kelapa, Tuban, Surabaya, Pasuruan, Malang and Blambangan.
6. Cirebon Kingdom
The next maritime Islamic kingdom is the Kingdom of Cirebon. This kingdom is in the Cirebon region, West Java. Sunan Gunung Jati led the Cirebon Kingdom from 1479-1568 AD. During his leadership, the Cirebon Kingdom reached the peak of its glory.
This was achieved due to trade relations with the Ming Dynasty from China, as well as the spread of Islam throughout Java. The Cirebon Kingdom began to collapse in 1666 under the leadership of Panembahan Ratu II or Pangeran Rasmi. Until finally, the Cirebon Kingdom split into two, namely Kacirebonan and Kaprabonan in 1697.
7. Gowa Tallo Kingdom
In eastern Indonesia there is the Kingdom of Gowa Tallo, precisely in the city of Makassar. There are two allied ethnic groups in the South Sulawesi area, namely the Makassar and Bugis ethnic groups. Both were famous as tough sailors and brave soldiers.
Well, they are often involved in patriotism and fighting activities. One of the kings of the Gowa Tallo Kingdom was Sultan Hasanuddin (1653-1669) with the nickname Rooster of the East. After ascending the throne, he faced a turbulent situation.
8. Pajang Kingdom
Next is the Pajang Kingdom. The establishment of this kingdom was shorter than other Islamic maritime kingdoms in the archipelago. When it was founded around 1568-1587, it only lasted 19 years.
The founder of the Pajang Kingdom was Sultan Hadiwijaya or better known as Jaka Tingkir. Even though it is Islamic in style, this kingdom is still strong with Hindu Buddhist influences. It can be seen from the establishment of the Laweyan Mosque which is shaped like a temple.
9. Perlak Kingdom
The Perlak Kingdom is in Peureulak, Aceh. This kingdom was founded in 840-1292 AD. The founder of the Perlak Kingdom was Sultan Alaiddin Sheikh Maulana Abdul Aziz Shah. The people there conduct their economy by trading.
However, unlike people in other kingdoms who practice a barter system, the people of the Perlak Kingdom use dirhams or gold, copper and silver as currency.