| Pendaftaran Siswa
08222 333 1144 I 0812 1233 2163
Selamat Datang di Laskar UI!

History of the Umayyad Caliphate, the First Caliphate after the Rightly Guided Caliphs

History of the Umayyad Caliphate, the First Caliphate after the Rightly Guided Caliphs
Desember 18, 2023 laskarui
In News
History of the Umayyad Caliphate, the First Caliphate after the Rightly Guided Caliphs

History of the Umayyad Caliphate, the First Caliphate after the Rightly Guided Caliphs

The Umayyads were the second Islamic caliphate founded after the Prophet Muhammad died. The founder of the Umayyads and their first caliph was Muawiyah bin Abu Sufyan or Muawiyah I. The following is the history of the Umayyad Caliphate.

History of the founding of the Umayyads in Damascus

The Umayyads were an Islamic dynasty founded in 661 AD. This caliphate lasted from 661 to 750 AD. The founder of the Umayyah Bani, namely Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan bin Harb bin Abd Manaf, also became the first caliph (leader) of the Umayyah Bani.

Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan is often nicknamed Muawiyah I and served as Governor of Syria during the time of Khulafaur Rasyidin. Precisely during the leadership of Umar bin Khattab and Uthman bin Affan. Meanwhile, the capital of the Umayyads was Damascus, Syria.

It should be noted that the leadership of Islam or the caliphate came from the Quraysh a.k.a. still from the lineage of the Prophet Muhammad SAW. Well, the lineage is that Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan bin Harb bin Abd Manaf met the Prophet Muhammad SAW at Abd Manaf.

The founding of the Umayyads could not be separated from the crisis period during Khulafaur Rasyidin’s government. The peak of Khulafaur Rasyidin’s glory was during the reign of Uthman bin Affan, then, during the reign of Ali bin Abi Talib, he experienced a setback.

Especially when Ali bin Abi Talib died in a revenge attack for the conflict over Uthman bin Affan’s policies in the second period. After that leadership did not immediately shift to Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan.

Baca Juga  Manfaat Dongeng dan Mendongeng untuk Anak Anak usia Sekolah

Initially, after Ali bin Abi Talib died, his leadership was replaced by his son, Hasan bin Ali bin Abi Talib. However, in 661 AD, Hasan withdrew. Hasan’s decline led to the Islamic caliphate being held by Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan.

After the Umayyads were founded, the capital of the Medina kingdom was moved to Damascus in the city of Sham. The Umayyad dynasty was successfully established not because of Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan’s diplomatic victory over the Shiffin War, part of the First Islamic Civil War because of the killing of Uthman bin Affan.

But also because of Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan’s strong thoughts to build the future and support of the Syrian people.

Caliph during the Umayyad Era

During the reign of Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan, there was a change in the system of government from democratic to hereditary leadership. In fact, all the people of Damascus were obliged to be loyal to their son, Yazid. Moreover, officials in this dynasty came from Arab descent.

Mu’awiyah I had a lot of experience in politics. He once led troops in the conquest of Syria, Palestine, Rome and Egypt. When he served as Governor of Syria, Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan also supervised Palestine and Egypt.

When Mu’awiyah I first took office, his territory extended to India. In total there are 13 people who were caliphs during the Umayyad Dynasty in Damascus.

During the leadership of Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan, the troops besieging Constantinople were successfully withdrawn. The separation of financial affairs from government affairs was regulated by appointing special officials called sahib al-kharaj.

Baca Juga  Konsep Pendidikan Dasar dengan Syarat Masuk Usia

Then, during the reign of Al-Walid bin ‘Abd al-Malik, the Umayyads’ territory was expanded. Al-Walid bin ‘Abd al-Malik tried to expand his territory to North Africa, namely to Al-Aqsa and Andalusia (Spain).

The seizure of Andalusia was led by the warlord Musa bin Nusair who sent Tariq bin Ziyat. Then, the straits of Africa and Spain, namely the Strait of Gibraltar, were successfully captured by Tariq bin Ziyat in 711 AD.

The Glory of the Umayyads


The government structure and administration during the Umayyad era was a refinement of the time of the caliph Umar bin Khattab. Its vast territory is divided into several provinces and is led by a governor appointed by the caliph.

Apart from that, several institutions and departments were formed, such as al-katib, al-hajib, and diwan. The Al-Katib Institute carries out all government administrative affairs. It includes the state secretary, state revenue secretary, military secretary and police secretary.

Meanwhile al-Hajib took care of the arrangements for officials and anyone who wanted to meet the caliph. Meanwhile, the diwan contains several departments, including:

  • Department that handles state documents
  • Institution for recording all decisions of the caliph
  • Department that manages state revenues
  • Postal services
  • Military defense institutions


The legal system during the Umayyad era was made according to the guidance of the Koran, Sunnah and ijtihad. This body is free from the influence of the authorities. Especially when passing judgment on officials who commit violations.


In the social field, relations between Arab Muslim nations were opened. Likewise with conquered countries such as Egypt, Persia and Europe. Finally, a lot of new creativity was born in the fields of art and science.

Baca Juga  Kesuksesan Belajar Salah Satunya dari Kenyamanan Tempat Belajarnya


Trade routes are also becoming smoother. One example of a port that has seen development is Basrah in the Persian Gulf. There, trade was busy and increasingly prosperous. Moreover, during the Umayyad era, special currency was printed.


People’s lives at that time were influenced by Islam. Many artistic buildings were built throughout the city. Persian style combined with Islamic nuances is visible on every side of the building. The famous grand mosque is the Damascus Mosque.


The Umayyad dynasty had great services in developing science. The center of scientific activities is carried out in the mosque. Not only that, many studies of poetry, history, creeds and others are carried out there. The science study centers that are often visited by Muslims from various regions are the Grand Mosque in Mecca and the Nabawi Mosque in Medina.

Comments (0)

Leave a reply

Alamat email Anda tidak akan dipublikasikan. Ruas yang wajib ditandai *


Balas Chat
Hi, Laskar UI di sini. Bisa dibantu?
Hi, Laskar UI di sini. Bisa dibantu?